State Bird of Iowa
By John James Audubon, F. R. SS. L. & E.
CARDUELIS TRISTIS, Linn.
PLATE CLXXXI.–MALE AND FEMALE.
This species merely passes over the State of Louisiana in the beginningof January, and at that season is seen there for only a few days, alightingon the highest tops of trees near water-courses, in small groups of eightor ten, males and females together. They feed at that period on the openingbuds of maples, and others that are equally tender and juicy. In the monthof November they are again seen moving southwards, and for a few days only.
A few breed in Kentucky and the State of Ohio, but the Middle Districtsare their principal places of resort during summer, although they extendtheir migrations to a high latitude. They arrive in the State of New Yorkabout the middle of April; and as they become very abundant in that Stateduring the summer, I shall describe their habits as observed there.
The flight of the American Goldfinch is exactly similar to that of theEuropean bird of the same name, being performed in deep curved lines, alternatelyrising and falling, after each propelling motion of the wings. It scarcelyever describes one of these curves without uttering two or three noteswhilst ascending, such as its European relative uses on similar occasions.In this manner, its flight is prolonged to considerable distances, andit frequently moves in a circling direction before alighting. Their migrationis performed during the day. They seldom alight on the ground, unless toprocure water, in which they wash with great liveliness and pleasure, afterwhich they pick up some particles of gravel or sand. So fond of each other’scompany are they, that a party of them passing on the wing will alter itscourse at the calling of a single one perched on a tree. This call is utteredwith much emphasis: the bird prolongs its usual note, without much alteration,and as the party approaches, erects its body, and moves it to the rightand left, as if turning on a pivot, apparently pleased at shewing the beautyof its plumage and the elegance of its manners. No sooner has the flock,previously on wing, alighted, than the whole party plume themselves, andthen perform a little sweet concert. So much does the song of our Goldfinchresemble that of the European species, that whilst in France and England,I have frequently thought, and with pleasure thought, that they were thenotes of our own bird which I heard. In America again, the song of theGoldfinch recalled to my remembrance its transatlantic kinsman, and broughtwith it too a grateful feeling for the many acts of hospitality and kindnesswhich I have experienced in the "old country."
The nest also is perfectly similar to that of the European bird, beingexternally composed of various lichens fastened together by saliva, andlined with the softest substances. It is small and extremely handsome,and is generally fixed on a branch of the Lombardy poplar, being sometimessecured to one side of a twig only. I have also found it in elder bushes,a few feet above the ground, as well as in other trees. The female depositsfrom four to six eggs, which are white, tinged with bluish, and markedat the larger end with reddish-brown spots. They raise only one brood ina season. The young follow the parents for a long time, are fed from themouth, as Canaries are, and are gradually taught to manage this themselves.When it happens that the female is disturbed while on her nest, she glidesoff to a neighbouring tree, and calls for her mate, pivoting herself onher feet, as above described. The male approaches, passes and repasseson the wing at a respectful distance from the intruder, in deeper curvesthan usual, uttering its ordinary note, and when the unwelcome visitanthas departed, flies with joy to his nest, accompanied by the female, whopresently resumes her occupation.
The food of the American Goldfinch consists chiefly of seeds of thehemp, the sun-flower, the lettuce, and various species of thistle. Nowand then, during winter, it eats the fruit of the elder.
In ascending along the shores of the Mohawk river, in the month of August,I have met more of these pretty birds in the course of a day’s walk thananywhere else; and whenever a thistle was to be seen along either bankof the New York canal, it was ornamented with one or more Goldfinches.They tear up the down and withered petals of the ripening flowers withease, leaning downwards upon them, eat off the seed, and allow the downto float in the air. The remarkable plumage of the male, as well as itssong, are at this season very agreeable; and so familiar are these birds,that they suffer you to approach within a few yards, before they leavethe plant on which they are seated. For a considerable space along theGenessee river, the shores of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and even Lake Superior,I have always seen many of them in the latter part of summer. They havethen a decided preference for the vicinity of water.
It is an extremely hardy bird, and often remains the whole winter inthe Middle Districts, although never in great numbers. When deprived ofliberty, it will live to a great age in a room or cage. I have known twoinstances in which a bird of this species had been confined for upwardsof ten years. They were procured in the market of New York when in matureplumage, and had been caught in trap-cages. One of them having undergonethe severe training, more frequently inflicted in Europe than America,and known in France by the name of galerien, would draw water for its drinkfrom a glass, it having a little chain attached to a narrow belt of softleather fastened round its body, and another equally light chain fastenedto a little bucket, kept by its weight in the water, until the little fellowraised it up with its bill, placed a foot upon it, and pulled again atthe chain until it reached the desired fluid and drank, when, on lettinggo, the bucket immediately fell into the glass below. In the same manner,it was obliged to draw towards its bill a little chariot filled with seeds;and in this distressing occupation was doomed to toil through a life ofsolitary grief, separated from its companions, wantoning on the wildflowers,and procuring their food in the manner in which nature had taught them.After being caught in trap-cages, they feed as if quite contented; butif it has been in spring that they have lost their liberty, and they havethus been deprived of the pleasures anticipated from the previous connexionof a mate, they linger for a few days and die. It is more difficult toprocure a mule brood between our species and the Canary, than between thelatter and the European Goldfinch, although I have known many instancesin which the attempt was made with complete success.
The young males do not appear in full plumage until the following spring.The old ones lose their beauty in winter, and assume the duller tints ofthe female. In fact, at that season, young and old of both sexes resembleeach other.
There is a trait of sagacity in this bird which is quite remarkable,and worthy of the notice of such naturalists as are fond of contrastinginstinct with reason. When a Goldfinch alights on a twig imbued with bird-limeexpressly for the purpose of securing it, it no sooner discovers the natureof the treacherous substance, than it throws itself backwards, with closedwings, and hangs in this position until the bird-lime has run out in theform of a slender thread considerably below the twig, when feeling a certaindegree of security, it beats its wings and flies off, with a resolution,doubtless, never to alight in such a place again; as I have observed Goldfinchesthat had escaped from me in this manner, when about to alight on any twig,whether smeared with bird-lime or not, flutter over it, as if to assurethemselves of its being safe for them to perch upon it.
This interesting species is found on the shores of the Columbia river.It is mentioned by Dr. RICHARDSON as visiting the Fur Countries, whereit arrives at a very late period, as it retires in September, after a stayof less than three months. The eggs described by that most zealous naturalistagree in every particular with some now before me, which I collected myself.They measure a trifle more than five and a half eighths in length, by fourand a half eighths in breadth, and are very obtuse at one end and sharpat the other. My friend Dr. BACHMAN informs me, that "although thisbird is not uncommon in the maritime districts of South Carolina duringwinter, it has not been observed to breed nearer than one hundred milesfrom Charleston." Dr. T. M. BREWER states, that "it remains throughthe year at Boston, breeds in large numbers, and is seen during winterin great flocks, in dull plumage, constantly flitting about."
Abundant in the Middle and Western Districts during summer. Accidentalin the Southern States during winter. Columbia river and Fur Countries.Abundant. Migratory.
AMERICAN GOLDFINCH, Fringilla tristis, Wils. Amer. Orn., vol. i. p.20.
FRINGILLA TRISTIS, Bonap. Syn., p. 111.
CARDUELIS AMERICANA (Edwards), American Goldfinch, Swains. & Rich.F. Bor. Amer., vol. ii. p. 268.
YELLOW-BIRD or AMERICAN GOLDFINCH, Nutt. Man., vol. i. p. 507.
AMERICAN GOLDFINCH, Fringilla tristis, Aud. Orn. Biog., vol. i. p. 172;vol.v. p. 510.
Bill rather slender, second and third quills longest. Male rich lemon-yellow,fading behind into yellowish-white; upper part of head, wings, and tailblack; smaller coverts yellow, quills margined, and secondary coverts tippedwith yellowish-white; inner webs of tail-feathers in their terminal halfwhite. Female brownish-olive above, without black on the head; fore neckand breast greyish-yellow, the rest of the lower parts greyish-white. Younglike the female, as is the male in winter.
Male, 4 1/2, 8.The Eastern Goldfinch is also the New Jersey State Bird and Washington State Bird
Web version of John James Audubon’s work. “The Birds of America”
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