Monoecious; males long cylindrical, red to yellow, in clusters at branch
tips; females yellow to purple.
Cones are ovoid to cylindrical and red-brown in color. The umbo is armed with a short spine. Cones are roughly the size of a potato (3 to 6 inches). Maturing September to October.
Orange-brown in color, fine to moderately stout. Buds are light reddish-brown.
Quite variable. When young, appears brown and scaly. Older trees are
ridged and furrowed, with somewhat apparent blocks. Very old trees have red-brown scaly plates.
A medium to large tree that self-prunes well and develops a straight
trunk and an oval, somewhat dense crown.
Conservation; Photos and text by: John Seiler, Edward Jensen,
Alex Niemiera, and John Peterson;Silvics reprinted from Ag
Handbook 654; range map source information